Options for importing and entering data

There are four options for entering data into the programme:

1. Data import from the «data_form» file
To do this, follow the instructions on the following page (Entering employee data using the fite «data form»).

2. Data import from the Swiss Earnings Structure survey 
This option is only valid for data collected for the Swiss Earnings Structure surveys up until 2010. In this case, you can directly import the Excel file containing the relevant data from the Earnings Structure survey. There are no other steps to be taken. Continue with Starting Logib.

3. Data import from your own Excel files or text 
In this case, the structure of the columns must match perfectly with the one of the “Data_form” sheet. In particular, ensure that:

  • The data appear on the first sheet if you are using Excel
  • Column labels/headers are entered in the first row
  • Data entries begin in the second row and first column.
  • To find out which information should be entered in each column, please read the Explanatory notes on table columns.

4. Manuel data entry
Instead of importing files, data can also be entered manually into the programme (see Importing data).

Entering employees data from the “data_form” file

  1. Open the «data_form» file. Delete the sample data provided and enter your employee data. Ensure that the format of all data cells is “standard”.
  2. In order for the analysis to be run, columns with a header containing an asterisk must be filled in. For the regression based on characteristics related to personal qualifications only (regression pq) the following columns are compulsory:

    • Key
    • Date or year of birth
    • Sex
    • Years of service, date or year of entry into service
    • Training and education 
    • Employment level or hours paid
    • At least one of the columns Gross wage, Allowances or Special payments.

The standard regression requires additional information in the two following columns:

  • Level of required qualifications for the job
  • Professional position

The non-compulsory columns, i.e. without asterisk, can be left empty.

Explanations on each column are provided in the «Explanatory notes on table columns».

Explanatory notes on table columns

Key

The system accepts numbers or a combination of letters and numbers.

Date or year of birth

The system accepts the four-digit year of birth (YYYY), or, alternatively, the complete data of birth (DD.MM.YYYY).

Sex

The system requires the coding male = 1, female = 2.

Years of service, date or year of entry into service

The system accepts the number of years as an integer or the year of entry (YYYY) or the complete date of entry (DD.MM.YYYY).

Training and education

The system accepts numbers from 1 to 8 corresponding to the definitions below. Only the highest actual education level should be entered. It must be certified by a certificate or diploma. For diplomas that have been completed abroad, please enter the code for the equivalent education in Switzerland

With regard to entering university degrees (codes 1 and 2) you have two options depending on your actual business situation:

either

enter the university degrees based on the type of institution and differentiate systematically between university degrees and degrees from a university of applied sciences. In this case, the codes are as follows:
 
1 = University, federal institute of technology (Uni, EPF).

2 = University of applied sciences (HES), university of teacher education (HEP): at least three years of full-time training and education. Technical college (ETS), School of Economics and Administration (business economy ESCEA), School of Applied Arts (ESAA), school for social work or special educational needs (CSESS/CSEES), Institute of Applied Psychology, Swiss Red Cross Management School, Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (SFIVET), Institute of Remedial Education, other educational training courses, college of home economics (ESEF) and other specialised schools.

or

enter the university degrees based on the type of degree and differentiate systematically between Bachelor (first degree) and Master (second degree) regardless of whether the degree was obtained from a university/EPF, university of applied sciences, university of teacher education or a similar educational institution. In this case, the codes are as follows:

1 = Master’s degree

2 = Bachelor’s degree. In questionnaire 2, item 2c), please indicate the coding you used for the tertiary section. Please do not use a combination of the two codings.

The codes for all other types of training are as follows:

3 = Higher vocational training and education: at least two years of full-time training and education. Apprenticeship followed by complementary training usually leading to a federal-level examination (Federal Certificate, diploma or master craftsman diploma, diploma awarded by a technical school (ET), diploma from a higher institute of business management or from a higher hotel and catering school as well as other comparable courses.

4 = Teaching certificate at various levels: teacher training college (primary teaching), higher teacher training college, teaching college for kindergarten teachers, etc.

5 = Academic Matura, vocational Matura.
 
6 = Completed vocational training and education usually leading to a federal or cantonal certificate of proficiency: vocational apprenticeship, commercial apprenticeship,  commercial college or upper secondary specialised school, nursing college, college of agriculture or home economics, recognised basic training, etc.
 
7 = In-house vocational training not recognised by the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI). 
 
8 = Compulsory schooling without professional qualification. 

Reminder: apprentices and trainees completing a training course must not be entered into the system.

Level of qualifications required for the job

The system accepts the numbers 1 to 4. Here are the corresponding definitions:

1 = Extremely demanding and difficult tasks
2 = Independent and skilled work
3 = Work requiring professional/technical skills
4 = Simple and repetitive tasks

Professional position

The system accepts the numbers 1 to 5. Here are the corresponding definitions:

1= Senior and higher management
Director or involvement in the management of the company:

  • Shaping or helping to shape policy at corporate level
  • Responsibility or joint responsibility for the achievement of the company’s goals
  • Coordination of various management functions
  • Responsibility for policy and achievement of objectives in a specific area

2 = Middle management
Management of a department within the company, high level support roles:

  • Responsibility for the planning and organisation of a specific area
  • Involvement in the development of long-term action plans.

3 = Lower management
Performance-oriented management of a sub-area, qualified support roles:

  • Responsibility for carrying out tasks in own area of activity;
  • Involvement in planning and organisation.

4 = Lowest management
Supervision tasks according to specific instructions:

  • Supervision of work in progress
  • Occasional involvement in planning and organisation.

5 = No management function.

Employee’s monthly wage: level of employment

The system accepts decimal numbers from 0 to 150. This number should correspond to the level of employment that corresponds to gross wages, excluding any overtime (as gross wages are also indicated without the payment of any overtime).

If a person has not received their whole pay for the reference month due to taking unpaid leave or joining or leaving the company, working hours should be entered in accordance with the agreed level of employment (because gross wages are indicated in accordance with the agreed level of employment). 

On the other hand, in the case of short-time work due to partial unemployment, please proceed as in the case of unpaid leave.

Reminder: the number 0 should be entered in this cell if there is an entry under “Hours paid”.

Employee’s hourly wage: paid hours during the reference month

The system accepts decimal numbers from 0 to 300. This number should correspond to the total number of hours paid by the company for the reference month.
Hours that should be included:

  • Hours worked and paid in full (excluding overtime hours)
  • Fully paid «lost» hours, e.g. due to doctor’s appointment, military service, vacation, absence due to an accident or illness, etc.

The following should not be included:

  • Overtime
  • Hours paid out through short-time working compensation payments unemployment insurance in case of short-time working.

Reminder: the number 0 should be entered in this cell if there is an entry under “Level of employment”.

Gross wage

The system accepts decimal numbers from 0 to 199,999.

Employees paid by the month:
Please indicate the gross wage corresponding to the working hours indicated under «Level of employment».
If a person did not receive their full wage for the reference month due to unpaid leave or joining or leaving the company, the components of the salary for the whole month should be entered.

The gross wage should be entered, including:

  • The amount of variable pay paid during the reference month (e.g.: premiums related to the amount of work carried out, commission on sales, etc.). If this figure fluctuates significantly, an average amount should be indicated (a twelfth of the annual amount paid) 
  • The amount of social contributions (compulsory and above-minimum contributions)  paid by the employee(s) (AVS/AI, APG, AC, AANP, occupational pension plan)
  • The amount of benefits in kind refers to the reference month.
  • Fringe benefits and/or profit sharing rights, if any

But excluding:

  • Allowances for shift/night/Sunday work and other hardship allowances (these are entered separately in the “Allowances” column)
  • Pro rata 13th (14th, etc.) monthly wage
  • Special payments such as bonuses which are paid annually or quarterly (these payments are entered separately in the “Special payments” column) 
  • Remuneration for overtime
  • Family and child allowances
  • Wages in lieu of vacation
  • Reimbursement of expenses
  • Short-time working compensation payments.

Employees paid by the hour
Please indicate the gross wage paid for the reference month by following the instructions for employees paid by the month. Please note that the following should not be included:

  • Paid vacation and public holidays
  • Pro rata 13th (14th, etc.) wage
  • Compensation for lost hours which were not fully paid.

Allowances (Shift, Sunday and night work and other hard work bonus)

The system accepts decimal numbers from 0 to 199,999. Please indicate allowances for shift/Sunday/night work and other hardship allowances paid during the reference month.

13th monthly wage

The system accepts decimal numbers from 0 to 49,999. Please indicate as 13th monthly wage, 14th or nth wage (unless these payments can be characterised as premium payments), the amount corresponding to the level of employment (or number of hours paid, for employees paid by the hour) in the reference month (e.g. a twelfth, i.e. 8.33% of the gross monthly wage in the reference month if a 13th wage equal to one month’s pay is paid).

Special payments

The system accepts decimal numbers from 0 to 199,999. Payments that are not directly related to the work carried out in the reference month are considered to be special payments. 

Please note that this does not include:

  • The 13th (14th, etc.) wage (unless it can be characterised as a premium)
  • Remuneration for overtime, short-time working compensation payments
  • Wages in lieu of vacation
  • Severance payments, marriage allowances, contributions to relocation expenses.

As these are usually annual or semi-annual payments, please indicate the proportionate amount for one month of work (for the level of employment in the reference month if this rate has varied during the year).

Tip: wage and level of employment (or number of hours paid) are closely related to the regression calculation and must therefore match perfectly.

FAQ – Preparing the data

Can I include in the same analysis employees who are paid by the month and those paid by the hour?

Yes. For employees who are paid by the hour, the number of hours worked during the reference month should be entered in the column «Hours paid in the reference month». For employees who are paid monthly, the level of employment should be entered in the column «Level of employment». Caution: only one of the two columns should be filled in. 

If I employ teachers whose working hours are broken down into number of lessons, can I indicate the number of lessons instead of the number of hours in the column “Hours paid in the reference month”?

This is possible but only if the same unit is used for all employees. It is not possible to combine lessons and hours.

In our company, the employees’ training and education are not taken into consideration. Can I omit this variable?

No, because Logib has been programmed to use this variable. In fact, the regression analysis carried out by Logib is based on the theory of human capital; in this theory, training and education are considered to be an important determinant of wage level.

Our company has clearly defined pay categories. Can I set the required level of skills using the pay category information?

It is important to set the required level of skills on the basis of an evaluation of the work to be carried out, i.e. on the basis of the job description.

Why are the scales for the required level of skills and professional position so broad (only four or five categories)? Can I use more levels?

No, because in Logib the categories are hard-coded and are identical to those used by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office in its Earnings Structure Survey (ESS). A statistical software would enable you to use a greater number of levels. However, the more fine-tuned the categories are, the greater the risk that only identical or very similar types of work will be compared with one another. The principle of equal pay for work of equal value, anchored in the Constitution, can only be monitored by using fairly broad categories.

For larger companies, the data from the Swiss Earnings Structure Survey represent only a sample of all wage data. Can I still use them?

In order to avoid sampling errors, it is advisable to use data from all of your employees.